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*The Standard Essay*

Extracts from: *_HOW TO ANSWER LITERATURE QUESTIONS_* (A work in progress)

A standard essay should have three parts namely: the introduction; the body; and the conclusion. This is applicable to every essay in every discipline. These three parts must be present when one is drafting one’s outline. Hence, ensuring that one’s essay is properly divided into paragraphs.

For an essay to be considered as standard at this level, the essay should have at least five paragraphs — that is, one paragraph for the introduction; three paragraphs for the body; and the last paragraph will be for the conclusion. It is important to note that only one idea should be discussed in a paragraph. For example, in an essay titled “The Effects of Drug Abuse”, you may outline at least three effects and discuss them all in different paragraphs.

The different parts of an essay perform different functions. The introductory part, just as the name implies, introduces the essay. It contains the thesis (What the essay aims to accomplish.) and perhaps, the definition of the concepts. An essay should have a good introduction that is catchy enough to attract the reader. The body of the essay is the point where you discuss your points while the conclusion is the point where you summarise and round off your essay.

Aside having the proper form, a standard essay should also show one’s authority in the use of language — that is, the grammatical construction of words and the correct employment of punctuation are keys to writing good essays. On this note, it is advisable for students writing literature exams to master topics such as: The Rules of Concord and The Correct Ways to Use Punctuation Marks.

Knowing the aforementioned topics is important because most literature teachers usually assume that these things have been taught in English so they do not waste precious time trying to teach the students basic things like subject-verb agreement and where to put the punctuation symbols when writing.

Another important skill to have while writing is the ability to ensure the smooth flow of thoughts from one sentence to another or from one paragraph to another. This is otherwise known as cohesion. Cohesion can be achieved in an essay through the use of connective such as: firstly, lastly, in conclusion, however, furthermore, nevertheless, conclusively etc.

To summarise all that has been said, one needs the following in order to write a good essay:
1. An outline.
2. Proper paragraphing.
3. The correct application of grammatical rules.
4. Mechanical accuracy — the correct use of punctuation marks.
5. Cohesion between sentences and paragraphs.

Below is an example of an outline and essay on the topic: “Why Youth Empowerment is Important for National Development.”

*Introduction*

Paragraph 1: Define the concept and list out some points that will be discussed in the body. State your thesis.

Body

Paragraph 2. Youth empowerment reduces the dependency on the government.
Paragraph 3. Youth empowerment reduces poverty.
Paragraph 4. Youth empowerment reduces crime.

*Conclusion*

Paragraph 5. Restate your thesis. Comment on what your essay has been able to achieve.

Why Youth Empowerment is Important for National Development.

Many of the developed countries of the world today are where they are because of the efforts the governments of these countries have made in terms of empowering their young citizens to be self-reliant. Self-reliance simply means the state of being able to provide for oneself the basic needs of life — water, food, housing, clothing and pleasure. Because the youths in the developed countries of the world are self-reliant, there is less dependency on the government, less poverty, and of course less crime. The word “less” is used before all the aforementioned because it is impossible to have a country whereby there is zero crime and no poor citizens etc. On this note, this essay will discuss the importance of youth empowerment to national development.

As mentioned in the preamble, if the government of Nigeria decides to invest in its youths by teaching them various skills that will make them to be able to fend for themselves, there will be less dependency on the government. If this is done in Nigeria, there will be an upsurge in the economy because the people must have learnt the skills needed to produce some of the things which are usually imported and subsidised by the government; thus, providing more funds for the government to carryout other tasks. It is no news that when people are happy and healthy, the government of the country will not have much problems; hence, doing this provides an opportunity to the government to pursue other pressing needs that will also aid national development.

Empowering the youth of Nigeria is surely going to reduce poverty. Due to lack of any official data at hand to back up claims that many Nigerians are poor, I will be giving a subjective description of poverty in Nigeria. Going through the slums of Ajegunle, I cannot help but feel nauseous when I see the poor living conditions of the people. Their houses are often old and dilapidated, usually without running water and proper toilets. To summarise, the places many a Nigerian lives is not worth living. Sadly these unhealthy environments and accommodations are what most can afford due to the high rate of poverty in the country, and in fact the ones who can afford these houses are often considered as lucky when compared to those who sleep on the streets. The high rate of poverty in the country will easily be reduced if only the government can train the youth to be self-reliant by conducting different workshops that will provide a platform for people to develop their skills and make money from it. If this is done, the standard of living of the people will increase significantly.

Finally, training the youth in skill acquisition will surely reduce crime in the country. In Nigeria today, crime — both high-profile and low-profile crimes — is the order of the day. Many youths involve in different vices in order to cater for themselves. The adage — “An idle hand is the devils workshop.” — is, everyday, proven to be correct in Nigeria because it is only those who are not gainfully employed that can find the time to involve in vices such as stealing and prostitution etc. All these will definitely reduce if only the government could provide a genuine means of making money for the youth in the country.

Youth empowerment is important for national development because the youths are the future leaders of the country. If those who will lead the country in the nearest future are responsible and self-reliant citizens, we can rest assured that the country will continue to grow and will soon be at par with the “Japans”, the “Germanies” and the “Chinas” of this world. In conclusion, this essay has discussed the importance of youth empowerment to national development.

Your feedback is required. Thanks.

*UDE, Chiedozie Orji (Atomic)*

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Mother visits her daughter for omugwo, gets pregnant for her son-in-law

A mother who went to do Omugwo for her daughter has allegedly gotten pregnant for her son-in-law (her daughter’s husband).

Social media user, Uncle Chike shared the story on his page where he revealed the mother who is 57 year old has fallen pregnant for her son-in-law who just welcomed a child with her daughter.

Mother visits her daughter for omugwo, gets pregnant for her son-in-law

He wrote;

Man …fear PH women. How can you go for Omugwo and get pregnant for your son in-law? How? Why is a 57yr old woman pregnant for her son in-law? What sort of “end of the world” nonsense is this?

Source: Lailasnews.com

Mimetic Analysis of Bomboy. Chiedozie Ude. Gbamlog.com

The novel Bomboy revolves around the character of Leke, a single young man who is portrayed as quite restless and antisocial; hence, he develops the habit of stalking women and stealing irrelevant things from people. He later finds out through a series of letter written to him by his biological father that the cause of his queer mannerisms stems from a generational curse placed on his family by a witch doctor whom they wronged. Having found the source of his troubles, Leke embarks on a mission to rid himself of the curse. All the events in the story prove that the novel Bomboy is one that can be analysed based on the verisimilitude it shares with the human society.

The novel Bomboy is rich in content in that it displays the relationship between modernity and tradition as it portrays human life. The novel portrays modernity through several ways. One of such ways is highlighted through the author’s depiction of a plethora of instances when Leke seeks modern and professional help in his search for rest and peace of mind. By so doing, themes such as: the universal theme of cultural conflict, as depicted by the clash between the Nigerian and South African beliefs; the theme of identity; the theme of love; the theme of racial discrimination; and the theme of the despicable nature of the prison system etc., are projected by the author. All the aforementioned help reinforce the argument that this novel contains some present issues faced by people in the society.

However, it is, arguably, the author’s use of traditional events that make this novel really stand out. By fusing tradition into the story, the author, who is of the Yoruba origin, has been able to reinforce several notions postulated by other Yoruba authors such as Wole Soyinka in Death and the King’s Horseman, Femi Osofisan in Women of Owu and Ola Rotimi in his Nigerian adaptation of Sophocles Oedipus Rex — that is, The Gods are not to Blame. One of these notions is the belief in the gods and their ability to affect destinies. Consequently, we have the theme of fate. All these themes combine to strengthen the argument that Bomboy is a realistic work of art with happenings that are peculiar to man.

The theme of fate can be considered as central to this story. The author develops this theme by employing several literary devices such as flashback, suspense and other factors such as happenstance. Through these devices, the theme of fate is established and the reader is also able to link different events to the subject matter. One may be tempted to argue that the author’s use of similar dates to convey past events that have significant effects on present events is purely coincidental. However, it simply strengthens the argument that everything has been premeditated by the gods. Hence, one can be justified to describe the gods as domineering and all powerful because they are capable of determining the destinies of man. This theme of fate is arguably most prominent in the life of Oscar, who from a very little age realises that he will never know peace or be happy because of the curse of the witch doctor, an emissary of the gods, on his family. Therefore, one can be justified to declare that it is the pronouncement of the gods that made Leke to behave awkwardly.

Another theme that is worthy of attention is the theme of cultural conflict. The concept of cultural conflict is a universal phenomenon which appears in many works of art. This theme is portrayed by Oscar who finds it difficult to get along with his South African colleagues because of his belief in the stories which surround the mythical and ancestral Queen Moremi of Ile-Ife. Because of this belief, Oscar fails to acknowledge South African heroes such as Rhodes. This clash of beliefs adequately sums up the tensions that plague the relationship between Nigerians and South Africans in the modern era — that is, 21st Century.

Closely related to the theme of cultural conflict is the theme of identity, another universal concept. The theme of identity is brought into focus in this book through the plights of biracial people. Both Leke and his father are the products of interracial unions; hence, they can hardly pass as whites or as blacks. This issue plagues Leke’s childhood because he gets bullied by school mates who recognise, through his white foster parents, that he was adopted. Another instance which reinforces the theme of identity is Leke’s name. Leke, because he was not raised by his biological parents, is forced to answer awkward questions about the meaning of his name and its origin.

The theme of love is another recurring idea which helps to project realism in the text. Love, however abstract, may be regarded as the force behind the actions of the characters. For example, Oscar’s grandmother is motivated by her love for her daughter; hence, she refuses to honour her promise by withholding her daughter. Unarguably, love may also be regarded as the catalyst behind Oscar’s decision to have Malcom Feathers killed. Also, everything Jane does for Leke is motivated by love and this explains why he really adores her, even after death, as seen in his ritual of planting 4 o’clock flowers. The budding love affair between Leke and Tsotso cannot be exempted. Through this theme, the characters have been able to vividly portray the sacrifices humans can do for their loved ones.

Another theme which ensures that this novel possesses verisimilitude with its environment is the theme which captures the despicable nature of the South African prison system. The South African prison system neither rehabilitates or reforms. Rather, it is a place where different vices such as murder, homosexuality, rape violence, etc., thrive. The pathetic situation of these prisons are vividly portrayed in Dennis Brutus poem: “Letters to Martha” where Dennis Brutus describes in detail the atrocities that are committed by inmates on one another. This inter-textual evidence strengthens the theme being discussed because it proves the truism of the theme through the similarities in the way the inmates in both texts act —that is, violence, homosexuality and killing are the order of the day. With all this evidence, one will surely not receive Oscar’s death in prison with much surprise. Therefore, one cannot gainsay the fact that the theme of the despicable nature of the South African prison system as portrayed in Bomboy captures the reality of prisoners in South Africa, and by extension, prisoners all over the world.

In conclusion, the text Bomboy is one which portrays real life with its setting — places drawn from real life; themes — ideas that are universal; and character actions etc.

Rape in high places. “I have always admired her, ” says suspect. Gbamlog.com

A 27years old Nigerian young man, Adam Kunle, of Makogi area of Ibafo, Ogun State, has given insight into why he sneaked into the home of a 38 – year old woman by noon and allegedly raped her while she was observing siesta.Kunle who lived in the same neighbourhood with the victim said he admired the woman and had been making advances to her for quite some time without success as she kept rejecting his offer.He added that as the undying admiration persisted, he took advantage of the lady when she was alone at home on Monday, November 4, and had his way with her sexually.According to THE NATION, The suspect made this known to the Police during interrogation when he was arrested last Monday following complaints by the victim; who reported the incident at the Ibafo Police Station.The Police Public Relations Officer, Abimbola Oyeyemi, who disclosed this in a release, stated that the Divisional Crime Officer, Ibafo Police Station, Akindele Adrew led detectives to arrest the suspect, stressing that the victim had been taken to the hospital for medical attention and report.The suspect, Abimbola; a Deputy Superintendent of Police(DSP), added, would be transferred to the Anti-human trafficking and child labour unit of the State criminal investigation and intelligence department for further investigation and prosecution.

A 27years old Nigerian young man, Adam Kunle, of Makogi area of Ibafo, Ogun State, has given insight into why he sneaked into the home of a 38 – year old woman by noon and allegedly raped her while she was observing siesta.Kunle who lived in the same neighbourhood with the victim said he admired the woman and had been making advances to her for quite some time without success as she kept rejecting his offer.He added that as the undying admiration persisted, he took advantage of the lady when she was alone at home on Monday, November 4, and had his way with her sexually.According to THE NATION, The suspect made this known to the Police during interrogation when he was arrested last Monday following complaints by the victim; who reported the incident at the Ibafo Police Station.The Police Public Relations Officer, Abimbola Oyeyemi, who disclosed this in a release, stated that the Divisional Crime Officer, Ibafo Police Station, Akindele Adrew led detectives to arrest the suspect, stressing that the victim had been taken to the hospital for medical attention and report.The suspect, Abimbola; a Deputy Superintendent of Police(DSP), added, would be transferred to the Anti-human trafficking and child labour unit of the State criminal investigation and intelligence department for further investigation and prosecution.

Source: mcebisco.com

Why Saudi Arabia Is Set To Execute 23 Nigerians (Full List) GBAMLOG.COM

Saudi Arabia

The Saudi Arabia Government has announced that 23 Nigerians are on death roll over drug-related offences.

The Saudi Government made this known in a statement on Saturday.

Naija News understands that the suspects were arrested between 2016 and 2017 at King Abdul-Aziz International Airport, Jeddah, and Prince Muhammad Bin Abdu-Aziz International Airport, Madinah.

The suspects were said to have concealed the narcotic substance in their rectum.

The offence which is punishable by death contravenes Saudi Arabia’s narcotic and psychotropic substances rules.

The latest case is coming a few weeks after Saudi authorities executed Kudirat Afolabi for drug trafficking and Saheed Sobade, another Nigerian, reportedly nabbed with 1,183 grams of cocaine in Jeddah.

See their names below:

Adeniyi Adebayo Zikri

Tunde Ibrahim

Jimoh Idhola Lawal

Lolo Babatunde

Sulaiman Tunde

Idris Adewuumi Adepoju

Abdul Raimi Awela Ajibola

Yusuf Makeen Ajiboye

Adam Idris Abubakar

Saka Zakaria

Biola Lawal

Isa Abubakar Adam

Ibrahim Chiroma

Hafis Amosu

Aliu Muhammad

Funmilayo Omoyemi Bishi

Mistura Yekini

Amina Ajoke Alobi

Kuburat Ibrahim

Alaja Olufunke Alalaoe Abdulqadir

Fawsat Balagun Alabi

Aisha Muhammad Amira

Adebayo Zakariya.

Source: naijanews.com

Why Saudi Arabia Is Set To Execute 23 Nigerians (Full List) GBAMLOG.COM

Saudi Arabia

The Saudi Arabia Government has announced that 23 Nigerians are on death roll over drug-related offences.

The Saudi Government made this known in a statement on Saturday.

Naija News understands that the suspects were arrested between 2016 and 2017 at King Abdul-Aziz International Airport, Jeddah, and Prince Muhammad Bin Abdu-Aziz International Airport, Madinah.

The suspects were said to have concealed the narcotic substance in their rectum.

The offence which is punishable by death contravenes Saudi Arabia’s narcotic and psychotropic substances rules.

The latest case is coming a few weeks after Saudi authorities executed Kudirat Afolabi for drug trafficking and Saheed Sobade, another Nigerian, reportedly nabbed with 1,183 grams of cocaine in Jeddah.

See their names below:

Adeniyi Adebayo Zikri

Tunde Ibrahim

Jimoh Idhola Lawal

Lolo Babatunde

Sulaiman Tunde

Idris Adewuumi Adepoju

Abdul Raimi Awela Ajibola

Yusuf Makeen Ajiboye

Adam Idris Abubakar

Saka Zakaria

Biola Lawal

Isa Abubakar Adam

Ibrahim Chiroma

Hafis Amosu

Aliu Muhammad

Funmilayo Omoyemi Bishi

Mistura Yekini

Amina Ajoke Alobi

Kuburat Ibrahim

Alaja Olufunke Alalaoe Abdulqadir

Fawsat Balagun Alabi

Aisha Muhammad Amira

Adebayo Zakariya.

Source: naijanews.com

Why Saudi Arabia Is Set To Execute 23 Nigerians (Full List) GBAMLOG.COM

Saudi Arabia

The Saudi Arabia Government has announced that 23 Nigerians are on death roll over drug-related offences.

The Saudi Government made this known in a statement on Saturday.

Naija News understands that the suspects were arrested between 2016 and 2017 at King Abdul-Aziz International Airport, Jeddah, and Prince Muhammad Bin Abdu-Aziz International Airport, Madinah.

The suspects were said to have concealed the narcotic substance in their rectum.

The offence which is punishable by death contravenes Saudi Arabia’s narcotic and psychotropic substances rules.

The latest case is coming a few weeks after Saudi authorities executed Kudirat Afolabi for drug trafficking and Saheed Sobade, another Nigerian, reportedly nabbed with 1,183 grams of cocaine in Jeddah.

See their names below:

Adeniyi Adebayo Zikri

Tunde Ibrahim

Jimoh Idhola Lawal

Lolo Babatunde

Sulaiman Tunde

Idris Adewuumi Adepoju

Abdul Raimi Awela Ajibola

Yusuf Makeen Ajiboye

Adam Idris Abubakar

Saka Zakaria

Biola Lawal

Isa Abubakar Adam

Ibrahim Chiroma

Hafis Amosu

Aliu Muhammad

Funmilayo Omoyemi Bishi

Mistura Yekini

Amina Ajoke Alobi

Kuburat Ibrahim

Alaja Olufunke Alalaoe Abdulqadir

Fawsat Balagun Alabi

Aisha Muhammad Amira

Adebayo Zakariya.

Source: naijanews.com